Rheumatology deals with the diagnosis and therapy of rheumatic diseases. Doctors who have undergone formal training in rheumatology are called rheumatologists. Rheumatic diseases affect your joints tendons, ligaments, bones, and muscles. Among them are many types of arthritis, a term used for conditions that affect your joints. A rheumatologist will examine the patients and diagnose the condition, then oversee a treatment plan that will likely include medications, regular exercise, a healthy diet, stress management, and rest.