Neurology is the branch of medicine that deals with the anatomy, functions, and organic disorders of nerves and the nervous system. The most important area of neurology are: the autonomic, central and peripheral nervous systems. Neurologist is the person who deals with the field of neurology. Neurology is linked to psychiatry and oncology. Neurologists are not surgeons. Those who perform surgery are called neurosurgeons and they undergo a surgical, rather than internal medicine, residency.