Neurology is the branch of medicine that deals with the anatomy, functions, and organic disorders of nerves and the nervous system. The most important area of neurology are: the autonomic, central and peripheral nervous systems. A neurologist is a person who deals with the field of neurology. Neurology is linked to psychiatry and oncology. Neurologists are not surgeons. Those who perform surgery are called neurosurgeons and they undergo a surgical, rather than internal medicine, residency.